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酷游 食品:跟您说面筋蛋白分类

时间:2018-11-05 浏览:1800次
内容介绍

小(xiao)麦面(mian)(mian)(mian)筋蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)具有独(du)特(te)的(de)(de)持(chi)水(shui)性(xing)(xing)、粘弹(dan)性(xing)(xing)和(he)起(qi)泡性(xing)(xing),对面(mian)(mian)(mian)团(tuan)强度(du)、延展性(xing)(xing)和(he)持(chi)气(qi)性(xing)(xing)起(qi)到决定(ding)(ding)性(xing)(xing)作(zuo)用。其品(pin)质(zhi)优劣也(ye)直接(jie)决定(ding)(ding)了面(mian)(mian)(mian)团(tuan)的(de)(de)食用品(pin)质(zhi)。市(shi)售各类面(mian)(mian)(mian)粉的(de)(de)用途(tu)不一(yi)也(ye)主(zhu)(zhu)要(yao)(yao)归咎于(yu)面(mian)(mian)(mian)筋蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)的(de)(de)含(han)量(liang)(liang)和(he)质(zhi)量(liang)(liang)的(de)(de)差异。面(mian)(mian)(mian)筋蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)是自(zi)然界为(wei)复杂的(de)(de)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)之一(yi),其分(fen)子(zi)(zi)量(liang)(liang)范(fan)围为(wei)3万高达上千万道尔顿(Da)。目前小(xiao)麦面(mian)(mian)(mian)筋蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)的(de)(de)分(fen)类主(zhu)(zhu)要(yao)(yao)沿用Osborne分(fen)离法,即根据面(mian)(mian)(mian)筋蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)在(zai)(zai)乙醇(chun)水(shui)溶(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)液中(zhong)溶(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)解度(du)差异,一(yi)般可将其分(fen)为(wei)单(dan)体(ti)(ti)醇(chun)溶(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)和(he)聚(ju)合体(ti)(ti)谷(gu)(gu)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai),二者含(han)量(liang)(liang)接(jie)近(jin)1:1。面(mian)(mian)(mian)筋蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)的(de)(de)粘弹(dan)性(xing)(xing)主(zhu)(zhu)要(yao)(yao)来源于(yu)粘性(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)醇(chun)溶(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)和(he)弹(dan)性(xing)(xing)的(de)(de)谷(gu)(gu)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)。通(tong)常二者皆可称之为(wei)面(mian)(mian)(mian)筋蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai),但(dan)这(zhei)两种(zhong)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)无论从结构(gou)(gou)还是在(zai)(zai)功能(neng)方(fang)面(mian)(mian)(mian)都(dou)存在(zai)(zai)着很大的(de)(de)差异。小(xiao)麦面(mian)(mian)(mian)筋蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)中(zhong)非极性(xing)(xing)氨基酸的(de)(de)含(han)量(liang)(liang)较高(30%~40%)且离解程度(du)很低(di)(10%),易(yi)形(xing)(xing)成(cheng)(cheng)疏水(shui)作(zuo)用,谷(gu)(gu)氨酰胺侧链(lian)含(han)量(liang)(liang)高易(yi)形(xing)(xing)成(cheng)(cheng)氢键。同时它(ta)们在(zai)(zai)溶(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)液中(zhong)表现出(chu)较高程度(du)的(de)(de)聚(ju)合行为(wei),导致面(mian)(mian)(mian)筋蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)呈现出(chu)溶(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)解度(du)低(di)和(he)结晶性(xing)(xing)差的(de)(de)特(te)性(xing)(xing)。这(zhei)些特(te)性(xing)(xing)也(ye)成(cheng)(cheng)为(wei)解析面(mian)(mian)(mian)筋蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)复杂结构(gou)(gou)的(de)(de)主(zhu)(zhu)要(yao)(yao)障(zhang)碍。然而,为(wei)解释面(mian)(mian)(mian)筋蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)复杂结构(gou)(gou)和(he)功能(neng)性(xing)(xing)之间(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)关系(xi),诸多研究学者提出(chu)了相(xiang)(xiang)应的(de)(de)简化模型(xing)。在(zai)(zai)面(mian)(mian)(mian)团(tuan)体(ti)(ti)系(xi)模型(xing)中(zhong),谷(gu)(gu)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)肽链(lian)之间(jian)(jian)通(tong)过链(lian)外二硫键(SS)相(xiang)(xiang)连,而醇(chun)溶(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)则主(zhu)(zhu)要(yao)(yao)靠次级作(zuo)用力与(yu)(yu)谷(gu)(gu)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)作(zuo)用形(xing)(xing)成(cheng)(cheng)面(mian)(mian)(mian)筋蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)网络以构(gou)(gou)成(cheng)(cheng)面(mian)(mian)(mian)团(tuan)的(de)(de)骨架结构(gou)(gou)。面(mian)(mian)(mian)筋蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)体(ti)(ti)系(xi)模型(xing)中(zhong),线性(xing)(xing)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)为(wei)高分(fen)子(zi)(zi)谷(gu)(gu)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)亚(ya)基,球状(zhuang)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)则包括(kuo)低(di)分(fen)子(zi)(zi)谷(gu)(gu)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)亚(ya)基和(he)单(dan)体(ti)(ti)醇(chun)溶(rong)(rong)(rong)(rong)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)。其中(zhong)线性(xing)(xing)HMS之间(jian)(jian)主(zhu)(zhu)要(yao)(yao)通(tong)过SS键相(xiang)(xiang)互连接(jie)。而HMS与(yu)(yu)球状(zhuang)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)则通(tong)过SS键和(he)次级作(zuo)用力结合。HMS之间(jian)(jian)及(ji)HMS与(yu)(yu)球状(zhuang)蛋(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)(dan)白(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)(bai)间(jian)(jian)的(de)(de)连接(jie)数(shu)量(liang)(liang)主(zhu)(zhu)要(yao)(yao)取决于(yu)HMS的(de)(de)肽链(lian)长(zhang)度(du)。

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